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CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid technique used to save lives during emergency situations such as cardiac arrest, drowning, or suffocation. CPR involves manually pumping the chest and providing artificial respiration to a person who is not breathing or has stopped breathing. The aim of CPR is to maintain circulation and oxygenation of vital organs, especially the brain, until advanced medical care is available. In this article, we will discuss the importance of CPR, the steps involved in performing CPR, and the techniques used to perform CPR.

Importance of CPR

The importance of CPR cannot be overstated. CPR is a critical lifesaving technique that can significantly improve the chances of survival of a person in cardiac arrest. According to the American Heart Association, cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death in the United States, with approximately 475,000 people experiencing cardiac arrest each year. In addition, more than 350,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occur annually, and the survival rate for these events is less than 10 percent. However, studies have shown that early CPR can double or triple the chances of survival of a person in cardiac arrest.

The Steps Involved in Performing CPR

Performing CPR involves a series of steps that are designed to maintain circulation and oxygenation of vital organs. These steps are as follows:

Step 1: Check the scene and the person

Before beginning CPR, it is essential to ensure that the scene is safe and secure. This includes checking for any hazards such as fire, electrical wires, or gas leaks. Once the scene is safe, check the person to see if they are responsive by tapping them and calling their name. If the person is not responsive, call for emergency medical services immediately.

Step 2: Open the airway

To open the airway, tilt the person's head back gently by placing one hand on their forehead and lifting their chin with the other hand. This will help to ensure that the airway is clear and open.

Step 3: Check for breathing

Check for breathing by placing your ear close to the person's mouth and nose to listen for breathing sounds. Look for chest movement and feel for any breaths on your cheek. If the person is not breathing or is only gasping, begin CPR immediately.

Step 4: Perform chest compressions

To perform chest compressions, kneel beside the person and place the heel of one hand on the center of their chest, with the other hand on top. Keep your arms straight and your shoulders directly above your hands. Press down firmly and quickly, compressing the chest to a depth of at least two inches. Perform 30 compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute.



Step 5: Provide rescue breaths

After 30 compressions, open the person's airway again and provide rescue breaths. To do this, pinch the person's nose closed and give two breaths into their mouth, watching for chest rise with each breath.

Step 6: Continue CPR

Continue performing CPR, alternating between chest compressions and rescue breaths until emergency medical services arrive or the person starts breathing on their own.


While CPR is usually associated with adults, it is also an essential skill to know for infants. In this article, we will discuss CPR first aid for infants, including when and how to perform it.


When to Perform CPR on Infants

CPR is a critical emergency response that should be initiated immediately if an infant is unresponsive and not breathing. The following are some of the situations that may require CPR:

Choking: If an infant is choking and cannot breathe, it is essential to administer CPR as soon as possible. However, if you can dislodge the object causing the choking with back slaps and chest thrusts, CPR may not be necessary.

Drowning: Drowning is another situation where an infant may require CPR. If the infant is not breathing, and the pulse cannot be detected, CPR must be initiated immediately.

SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome): SIDS is a sudden, unexpected death of an infant, usually under the age of one, that cannot be explained by any known medical condition. If you discover an infant who is unresponsive and not breathing, CPR should be initiated immediately.

Trauma: Infants can suffer from different types of injuries that can lead to respiratory distress or cardiac arrest. If you suspect that an infant has suffered severe trauma or an injury that affects breathing or circulation, CPR may be necessary.




Performing CPR on Infants

Performing CPR on an infant requires specific techniques and considerations that differ from those used on adults or older children. The following is a step-by-step guide on how to perform CPR on infants:

Step 1: Check for responsiveness

The first step in performing CPR on an infant is to check for responsiveness. Gently tap the infant's shoulder or foot and call out their name. If the infant does not respond, shout for help immediately.

Step 2: Open the airway

With the infant lying on their back, tilt their head back slightly with one hand while lifting their chin with the other. This will open up their airway.

Step 3: Check for breathing

Look, listen, and feel for breathing by placing your ear close to the infant's nose and mouth. If you cannot detect any breathing, or if it is erratic, proceed to the next step.

Step 4: Perform chest compressions

Place two fingers in the center of the infant's chest, just below the nipple line. Press down firmly and quickly, compressing the chest to a depth of about one and a half inches. Repeat this cycle at a rate of about 100-120 compressions per minute.

Step 5: Perform rescue breathing

After 30 chest compressions, it's time to provide rescue breaths. With the infant's head still tilted back, use your mouth to form a tight seal over their mouth and nose. Blow a quick breath into the infant's mouth, ensuring that their chest rises with each breath. Repeat this cycle for a total of two breaths.

Step 6: Continue CPR

Continue the cycle of 30 compressions followed by two breaths until help arrives, or the infant shows signs of recovery. If another person is available, they can take over the chest compressions while you provide rescue breaths.




3 comments

3 Comments


Great review. Took the course 4 times over the years but am stale with it. Certainly refreshed my memory.

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Great detail !

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“Aspen” Rage
“Aspen” Rage
Jun 12, 2023

Great articl!

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